Date of publication: 2017-09-03 20:02
Dual-action antidepressants : The biochemical reality is that all classes of medications that treat depression (MAOIs, SSRIs, TCAs, and atypical antidepressants ) have some effect on both norepinephrine and serotonin, as well as on other neurotransmitters. However, the various medications affect the different neurotransmitters in varying degrees.
The idea in CBT is to learn to recognize those negative thoughts and find a healthier way to view the situation. The ultimate goal is to discover the underlying assumptions out of which those thoughts arise and evaluate them. Once the inaccuracy of the assumption becomes evident, the patient can replace that perspective with a more accurate one.
During regular cognitive therapy sessions, a trained therapist teaches the tools of cognitive therapy. Then between sessions, the patient often does homework. That homework helps the person learn how to apply the tools to solve specific life problems.
Not everyone who is depressed or manic experiences every symptom. Some people suffer from a few symptoms and some many symptoms. The severity of symptoms also varies with individuals. Less severe symptoms that precede the more debilitating symptoms are often called warning signs.
The presence of maternal-fetal stress is another risk factor for depression. It seems that maternal stress during pregnancy can increase the chance that the child will be prone to depression as an adult, particularly if there is a genetic vulnerability. It is thought that the mother s circulating stress hormones can influence the development of the fetus brain during pregnancy. This altered fetal brain development occurs in ways that predispose the child to the risk of depression as an adult. Further research is still necessary to clarify how this happens. Again, this situation shows the complex interaction between genetic vulnerability and environmental stress, in this case, the stress of the mother on the fetus.
It takes about eight weeks for the patient to become competent at the skills that are being taught in therapy and to reasonably understand the model. While this is going on, the patient usually experiences a significant reduction of symptoms. Between eight and 67 weeks patients often experience a remission of symptoms. During the remaining time, they continue to practice the skills learned and to address issues related to ending the sessions.
Compared to women, men with depression are more likely to experience low energy, irritability, and anger, sometimes to the point of inflicting pain on others. Men with depression are also more likely to exhibit sleep problems , a loss of interest in work or hobbies, and substance abuse. They may work excessively and engage in more risky behaviors when struggling with depression, committing suicide four times as often as women with this condition. Despite these difficulties, men tend to be much less likely to receive treatment for any condition, particularly depression.
Sometimes just listening to someone who understands what you're feeling is all it takes. International expert on depression, Professor Paul Gilbert, has recorded Overcoming Depression: Talks with Your Therapist , (available in cd format and downloadable audio tracks) in which he explores the effects of depression and offers insights into ways to help cope with and lift depression.
The process of adjustment can be helped or hindered by the injured athlete 8767 s own personality. Some people perceive uncontrollable negative events as internal ( 8766 it 8767 s all my fault 8767 ), stable ( 8766 it 8767 s never going to get better 8767 ) and global ( 8766 it 8767 s going to affect everything I do 8767 ). Such thinking has been called a pessimistic explanatory style and some people are more prone to it than others. Contrast these feelings with a more optimistic approach ( 8766 I couldn 8767 t have done anything about it, but my injury will mend and it 8767 s not going to affect the other good things in my life 8767 ) and you can clearly see the barriers to progress and the psychological damage that is being self-inflicted in the former example.
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After a "successful" treatment for depression, many people continue to have mild depressive symptoms. Adding cognitive therapy to the treatment plan helps reduce these residual symptoms.
This article aims to present an overview of research findings from studies of the psychological impact of injuries. These might be useful for those working with injured athletes and potentially draw attention to issues of service delivery.