Date of publication: 2017-08-30 00:50
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Using the life cycle approach one must address the contribution of heredity and the environment to individual development. Critical thinkers such as Bandura , Bowlby, Bronfenbrenner , Erickson, Piaget , and Vygotsky have paved the way for future thinkers to further develop current theories and introduce novel ones as well.
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Each study proposed children’s attachment levels were heavily influenced by their parents or caregivers. However, the majority of the researchers tended to use Caucasian mothers. Thus, the other commonality was the parent’s gender. For the most part, researchers focused their studies on mothers. While the children who grew up with mothers tended to exhibit some attachment issues, it was not a substantial factor in their development.
Albert Bandura proposed a modification of the social learning theory, which examines human behavior and development in light of the interactions among cognitive, behavioral, and environmental components. Like Vygotsky, Bandura&rsquo s theory emphasizes the role of social learning and believes that peers play an important role in refining children&rsquo s self-appraisal abilities. Unhealthy peer relations can negatively impact upon a child&rsquo s sense of self-efficacy, which in turn can prevent future development of healthy peer relations
Overall, while the information gained from the studies implies environment is an important element to a child’s development, it seems that there was a lack of evidence that supported attachment and future behavioral problems. With that in mind, this lack of evidence poses a future question that researchers should address. Perhaps children exhibit behavior based on other’s preconceived notions. Because if a teacher believes a teenage mother is incapable of caring for her children, the teacher may inadvertently respond negatively to the mother, and subsequently, he or she will react negatively to the children. Ultimately, in order to understand attachment, researchers must consider all parties involved because a child’s behavior may be a direct consequence of his or her environment.
Instead, it seems environment and parental attitudes were the most significant factor in children’s behavior. Therefore, based on the reviewed literature, it is difficult to attribute delinquent behavior to children’s initial attachments. In order to find empirical evidence that connects future behavior to attachment, researchers would have to observe children from the time they were born until they reached early adulthood.
Freud Latency Stage - Freud described the latency stage as a relatively stable period during which the child has resolved or repressed the psychological and sexual challenges.
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Piaget also recognized the importance of social interaction within the environment upon the development of children. He was a biologist trained in scientific methods who sought to investigate the acquisition of knowledge as a process rather than an end-point. His theory of constuctivism explained that the nature of human knowledge originates from inside the child. One main tenet of Piaget&rsquo s theory was that an object cannot be understood as it exists in reality, but instead must be assimilated into an individual&rsquo s schema. The schema represents a structure by which each human&rsquo s unique experiences are organized and processed.
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